3THE INTERNATIONAL BILL OF HUMAN RIGHTS
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United Nations International Court of JUSTICE

Secretary - General Mr. Ban Ki-moon | President of the General Assembly Mr. Vuk Jeremic | Member States 1945 : 51 | 2011 : 193 Member States

   

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United Nations International Court of JUSTICE

The International Court of Justice (FrenchCour internationale de Justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations. It is based in the Peace Palace in The HagueNetherlands. Its main functions are to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international branches, agencies, and the UN General Assembly.

Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court.

The Court's workload covers a wide range of judicial activity. To date, the ICJ has dealt with relatively few cases. However, since the 1980s there has been a clear increase in willingness to use the Court, especially among developing countries. After the court ruled that the U.S.'s covert war against Nicaragua was in violation of international law (Nicaragua v. United States), the United States withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986. The United States accepts the court's jurisdiction only on a case-by-case basis.[3] Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter authorizes the UN Security Council to enforce World Court rulings. However, such enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council, which the United States used in the Nicaragua case.

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THE SEAT ICJ
MN ICJ  

PEACE PALACE

Seat of The

ICJ

     

 

ICJ
ICJ  

ICJ

Public hearing

     

Composition

The ICJ is composed of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council from a list of persons nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. The election process is set out in Articles 4–19 of the ICJ statute. Elections are staggered with five judges elected every three years, in order to ensure continuity within the court.

Should a judge die in office, the practice has generally been to elect a judge in a special election to complete the term. No two may be nationals of the same country. According to Article 9, the membership of the Court is supposed to represent the "main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world". Essentially, this has meant common lawcivil law and socialist law (now post-communist law). Since its creation, four of the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, Russia, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States) have always had a judge on the Court. The exception was China (the Republic of China until 1971, the People's Republic of China from 1971 onwards), which did not have a judge on the Court from 1967 to 1985, because it did not put forward a candidate. The rule on a geopolitical composition of the bench exists despite the fact that there is no provision for it in the Statute of the ICJ.

Article 6 of the Statute provides that all judges should be "elected regardless of their nationality among persons of high moral character", who are either qualified for the highest judicial office in their home states or known as lawyers with sufficient competence in international law. Judicial independence is dealt with specifically in Articles 16–18. Judges of the ICJ are not able to hold any other post, nor act as counsel. In practice the Members of the Court have their own interpretation of these rules. This allows them to be involved in outside arbitration and hold professional posts as long as there is no conflict of interest. A judge can be dismissed only by a unanimous vote of other members of the Court.Despite these provisions, the independence of ICJ judges has been questioned. For example, during the Nicaragua Case, the USA issued a communiqué suggesting that it could not present sensitive material to the Court because of the presence of judges from Eastern bloc states.

Judges may deliver joint judgments or give their own separate opinions. Decisions and Advisory Opinions are by majority and, in the event of an equal division, the President's vote becomes decisive. Judges may also deliver separate dissenting opinions.

Name Nationality Position Tenure Began Term Ending
Peter Tomka Slovakia Slovakia President (2012–2015) 2003 2021
Bernardo Sepúlveda Amor MexicoMexico Vice-President (2012–2015) 2006 2015
Hisashi Owada Japan Japan Member 2003 2021
Ronny Abraham France France Member 2005 2018
Sir Kenneth Keith New Zealand New Zealand Member 2006 2015
Mohamed Bennouna Morocco Morocco Member 2006 2015
Leonid Skotnikov Russia Russia Member 2006 2015
Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade Brazil Brazil Member 2009 2018
Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf Somalia Somalia Member 2009 2018
Sir Christopher Greenwood United Kingdom United Kingdom Member 2009 2018
Xue Hanqin China People's Republic of China Member 2010 2021
Joan E. Donoghue United States United States Member 2010 2015
Giorgio Gaja Italy Italy Member 2012 2021
Julia Sebutinde Uganda Uganda Member 2012 2021
Dalveer Bhandari India India Member 2012 2018

 

ICJ and the Security Council

Article 94 establishes the duty of all UN members to comply with decisions of the Court involving them. If parties do not comply, the issue may be taken before the Security Council for enforcement action. There are obvious problems with such a method of enforcement. If the judgment is against one of the permanent five members of the Security Council or its allies, any resolution on enforcement would then be vetoed. This occurred, for example, after the Nicaragua case, when Nicaragua brought the issue of the U.S.'s non-compliance with the Court's decision before the Security Council.Furthermore, if the Security Council refuses to enforce a judgment against any other state, there is no method of forcing the state to comply. Furthermore, the most effective form to take action for the Security Council, coercive action under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, can be justified only if international peace and security are at stake. The Security Council has never done this so far.

The relationship between the ICJ and the Security Council, and the separation of their powers, was considered by the Court in 1992 in the Pan Am case. The Court had to consider an application from Libya for the order of provisional measures to protect its rights, which, it alleged, were being infringed by the threat of economic sanctions by the United Kingdom and United States. The problem was that these sanctions had been authorized by the Security Council, which resulted in a potential conflict between the Chapter VII functions of the Security Council and the judicial function of the Court. The Court decided, by eleven votes to five, that it could not order the requested provisional measures because the rights claimed by Libya, even if legitimate under theMontreal Conventionprima facie could not be regarded as appropriate since the action was ordered by the Security Council. In accordance with Article 103 of the UN Charter, obligations under the Charter took precedence over other treaty obligations. Nevertheless the Court declared the application admissible in 1998. A decision on the merits has not been given since the parties (United Kingdom, United States and Libya) settled the case out of court in 2003.

There was a marked reluctance on the part of a majority of the Court to become involved in a dispute in such a way as to bring it potentially into conflict with the Council. The Court stated in theNicaragua case that there is no necessary inconsistency between action by the Security Council and adjudication by the ICJ. However, where there is room for conflict, the balance appears to be in favor of the Security Council.

Should either party fail "to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court", the Security Council may be called upon to "make recommendations or decide upon measures" if the Security Council deems such actions necessary. In practice, the Court's powers have been limited by the unwillingness of the losing party to abide by the Court's ruling, and by the Security Council's unwillingness to impose consequences. However, in theory, "so far as the parties to the case are concerned, a judgment of the Court is binding, final and without appeal," and "by signing the Charter, a State Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with any decision of the International Court of Justice in a case to which it is a party."

For example, the United States had previously accepted the Court's compulsory jurisdiction upon its creation in 1946, but in Nicaragua v. United States withdrew its acceptance following the Court's judgment in 1984 that called on the U.S. to "cease and to refrain" from the "unlawful use of force" against the government of Nicaragua. The Court ruled (with only the American judge dissenting) that the United States was "in breach of its obligation under the Treaty of Friendship with Nicaragua not to use force against Nicaragua" and ordered the United States to pay war reparations (see note 2).

 

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About UNICEF

UNICEF is the driving force that helps build a world where the rights of every child are realized. We have the global authority to influence decision-makers, and the variety of partners at grassroots level to turn the most innovative ideas into reality.  That makes us unique among world organizations, and unique among those working with the young.

UNICEF believes that nurturing and caring for children are the cornerstones of human progress.  UNICEF was created with this purpose in mind – to work with others to overcome the obstacles that poverty, violence, disease and discrimination place in a child’s path.  We believe that we can, together, advance the cause of humanity.

UNICEF advocates for measures to give children the best start in life, because proper care at the youngest age forms the strongest foundation for a person’s future.

UNICEF promotes girls’ education – ensuring that they complete primary education as a minimum – because it benefits all children, both girls and boys. Girls who are educated grow up to become better thinkers, better citizens, and better parents to their own children.

UNICEF is committed to changing the world for children. It strives to protect their rights, improve their health, and nurture their development through sound planning and monitoring of policy results.

Current Executive Director of UNICEF is Mr. Anthony LAKE

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR of UNICEF Mr. Anthony LAKE
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Mr. Anthony Lake became UNICEF’s sixth Executive Director on 1 May 2010

The STRUCTURE of UNICEF

With its strong presence in 190 countries, UNICEF is the world's leading advocate for children.

The heart of UNICEF's work is in the field. Each country officecarries out UNICEF's mission through a unique programme of cooperation developed with the host government. This five-year programme focuses on practical ways to realize the rights of children and women. Their needs are analyzed in a situation report produced at the beginning of the programme cycle.Regional offices guide this work and provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. UNICEF's work is fully part of other United Nations activities in a country. 

Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Specialized offices include the Supply Division, based in Copenhagen, which provides such essential items as the majority of  life-saving vaccine doses for children in developing countries.

UNICEF also operates the Innocenti Research Centre in Florence and Offices for Japan and Brussels, which assist with fund-raising and liaison with policy makers.

Many people in industrialized countries first hear about UNICEF’s work through the activities of 36National Committees for UNICEF. These non-governmental organizations promote children’s rights, raise funds, sell UNICEF greeting cards and products, create key corporate and civil societypartnerships, and provide other invaluable support. The committees raise a third of UNICEF's resources.

Well known National Commitee campaigns include Check Out for Children, where guests add a donation to UNICEF to their room bill when checking out; Change For Good®, which enables passengers on international airlines to donate their leftover foreign coins and notes; and 'Trick or Treat for UNICEF,' in which milions of children in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Ireland raise funds for UNICEF.

UNICEF is supported entirely by voluntary funds. Governments contribute two thirds of our resources; private groups and some 6 million individual donors contribute the rest through our National Committees. 

Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is a 36-member Executive Board made up of government representatives. They establish policies, approve programmes and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Members are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, usually for three-year terms.

UNICEF Headquarters

Country Web Site: http://www.unicefusa.org

NEW YORK

National Committee

Mail address

 

United States Fund for UNICEF 
125 Maiden Lane, 11th Floor
New York, NY 10038

Visitors' address

 

United States Fund for UNICEF 
125 Maiden Lane, 11th Floor
New York, NY 10038

Telephone

 

Country code

1

City code

212

 

686.5522

Facsimile

 

779.1679

Email

 

got to:http://www.unicefusa.org/about/contact/

 

NEW YORK

Headquarters

Mail address

 

UNICEF House
3 United Nations Plaza
New York, New York 10017
U.S.A.

Visitors' address

 

3 United Nations Plaza
44th Street between 1st and 2nd Avenues
New York, New York

Telephone

 

Country code

1

City code

212

 

326.7000 - Switchboard UNICEF House

Facsimile

 

887.7465 - Primary
887.7454 - Secondary

Email

 

URL http://www.unicef.org

 
UNICEF Child - Friendly School Model

The child-friendly school (CFS) model is simple: it calls for schools to operate in the best interests of the child. Child-friendly educational environments must be safe, healthy and protective. They must be provided with trained teachers, adequate resources and appropriate physical, emotional and social conditions for learning.

Within a child-friendly school, children’s rights are protected and their voices are heard. The learning environment is a haven in which children can learn and grow and in which their identities and varied needs are respected. The CFS model promotes inclusiveness, gender sensitivity, tolerance, dignity and personal empowerment.

There is no single way to make a school child-friendly. Though the model may differ from country to country, in every culture a child-friendly school provides child-centred education in a safe, healthy and holistic environment.

Child-friendly environments build on the assets that children bring from their homes and communities, respecting their unique backgrounds and circumstances. The CFS model compensates for any shortcomings in the home or community that might impede a child’s ability to enrol in school, attend regularly or succeed in studies. For example, when learning is hampered by a lack of food, a school feeding programme can provide children the nutrition they need. In such circumstances it also serves as an incentive to stay in school, reinforcing its child-friendliness.

The CFS model also builds partnerships between schools and communities. Children have the right to be fully prepared to become active and productive citizens, so their learning must be linked to the conditions and needs of their community.  

National governments can encourage the development of child-friendly schools by promoting free enrolment, prohibiting corporal punishment, encouraging the use of local languages in schools, integrating children with disabilities into mainstream schools, allowing pregnant students to complete their education, and implementing the right to education for children living with HIV and/or AIDS. 

To ensure sustainability of the CFS approach, governments can work to infuse key elements of the CFS model into all aspects of the education system, including the processes and parameters that shape the system. This means that planning, implementation, financing, staffing, management, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of education in the country will intrinsically embrace the CFS model.

In the past decade, the CFS approach has become UNICEF’s preferred strategy for promoting quality education, even during emergencies. When emergencies strike, UNICEF provides school-in-a-box kits to temporary child-friendly learning spaces. The routine of going to school helps children recover from trauma while also keeping their education on track. Our success in implementing the CFS model depends on collaboration with international partners. Together, we work to ensure that all children – regardless of whether they attend school in a building, in a tent or under a tree – receive a rights-based, quality education.

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre Florence Italy

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in FlorenceItaly, was established in 1988, to strengthen the research capability of the United Nations Children's Fund and to support its advocacy for children worldwide.

The centre, formally known as the International Child Development Centre, has as its prime objectives to improve international understanding of issues relating to children's rights, to promote economic policies that advance the cause of children, and to help facilitate the full implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in industrialized and developing countries.

The programme for 2006–2008 was approved by UNICEF Executive Board in September 2005. It reaffirms the centre's academic freedom and the focus of IRC's research on knowledge gaps, emerging questions and sensitive issues which are relevant to the realization of children's rights, in developing and industrialized countries. It capitalizes on IRC's role as an interface between UNICEF field experience, international experts, research networks and policy makers and is designed to strengthen the centre's institutional collaboration with regional academic and policy institutions, pursuing the following goals:

Three interrelated strategies will guide the achievement of these goals:

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre Florence | Italy | Established in 1988
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Current President of The ECOSOC is His Excellency Néstor OSORIO .

His Excellency Néstor Osorio was elected sixty-ninth President of the Economic and Social Council on 28 January 2013. Ambassador Osorio is currently the Ambassador

and

Permanent Representative of Colombia to the United Nations in New York.

ECOSOC BUREAU

The Bureau of the Economic and Social Council is elected by the Council at large at the beginning of each annual session. The Bureau's main functions are to propose the agenda, draw up

a programme of work and organize the session with the support of the United Nations Secretariat.

Bureau members for 2013:

President of ECOSOC: H.E. Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia)

Vice-President of ECOSOC: H. E. Ambassador Daffa-Alla Elhag Ali Osman (Sudan)

Vice-President of ECOSOC: H.E. Ambassador Masood Khan (Pakistan)

Vice-President of ECOSOC: H. E. Ambassador Ferit Hoxha (Albania)

Vice-President of ECOSOC: H.E. Ambassador Martin Sajdik (Austria)

United Nations Economic and Social Council | ECOSOC
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ECOSOC MEMBERS

The Council's 54 member Governments are elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allotted based on geographical representation with fourteen allocated to African States, eleven to Asian States, six to Eastern European States, ten to Latin American and Caribbean States, and thirteen to Western European and other States.

ECOSOC Members | On Right Year Term Expires per 31 December

Albania

2015

Austria

2014

Belarus

2014

Benin

2015

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

2015

Brazil

2014

Bulgaria

2013

Burkina Faso

2014

Cameroon

2013

Canada

2015

China

2013

Colombia

2015

Croatia

2015

Cuba

2014

Denmark

2013

Dominican Republic

2014

Ecuador

2013

El Salvador

2014

Ethiopia

2014

France

2014

Gabon

2013

Haiti

2015

India

2014

Indonesia

2014

Ireland

2014

Japan

2014

Kuwait

2015

Kyrgyzstan

2015

Latvia

2013

Lesotho

2014

Libya

2014

Malawi

2013

Mauritius

2015

Mexico

2013

Nepal

2015

Netherlands

2015

New Zealand

2013

Nicaragua

2013

Nigeria

2014

Pakistan

2013

Qatar

2013

Republic of Korea

2013

Russian Federation

2013

San Marino

2015

Senegal

2013

South Africa

2015

Spain

2014

Sudan

2015

Sweden

2013

Tunisia

2015

Turkey

2014

Turkmenistan

2015

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

2013

United States of America

2015

 


 

Brief List of SUBSIDIARY BODIES OF ECOSOC

ECOSOC Functional Commissions

ECOSOC Regional Commissions


ECOSOC Standing Committees

QUEEN RANIA AL ABDULLAH of JORDAN
 
 
 

 

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