THE INTERNATIONAL BILL OF HUMAN RIGHTS
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Indigenous PEOPLE

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

Secretary - General Mr. Ban Ki-moon | President of the General Assembly Mr. Vuk Jeremic | Member States 1945 : 51 | 2011 : 193 Member States

   

 

 

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Indigenous PEOPLE

Director - General of The UNESCO is Ms. Irina BOKOVA

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples are peoples defined in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and their cultural or historical distinctiveness from other populations that are often politically dominant.  The concept of indigenous peoples defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation, marginalization and oppression by nation states that may still be formed from the colonising populations, or by politically dominant ethnic groups. As a result, a special set of political rights in accordance with international law have been set forth by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.The United Nations have issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to collective rights of indigenous peoples—such as culture, identity, language, and access to employment, health, education, and natural resources. Although no definitive definition of "indigenous peoples" exists, estimates put the total population of post-colonial indigenous peoples who seek human rights and discrimination redress from 220 million to 350 million.

Terms and etymologies

The adjective indigenous is derived from the Latin etymology meaning "native" or "born within".According to its meaning in English, any given people,ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional tribal land claim. However, during the late twentieth century the term Indigenous people evolved into a legal category, which refers to culturally distinct groups that had been affected by the processes of colonization.

Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are: aboriginal, native, original, first, and hereditary owners in indigenous law.

The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines thatMerriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culturetradition, or sense of kinship, which typically have common languageinstitutions, and beliefs, and often constitute a politically organized group".

Facts and Numbers

Article 1

            Indigenous peoples have the right to the full enjoyment, as a collective or as individuals, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international human rights law.

Article 2

            Indigenous peoples and individuals are free and equal to all other peoples and individuals and have the right to be free from any kind of discrimination, in the exercise of their rights, in particular that based on their indigenous origin or identity.

Article 3

            Indigenous peoples have the right of self‑determination.  By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

Article 4

            Indigenous peoples, in exercising their right to self-determination, have the right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to their internal and local affairs, as well as ways and means for financing their autonomous functions.

Article 5

            Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining their rights to participate fully, if they so choose, in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the State.

Article 6

            Every indigenous individual has the right to a nationality.

Article 7

            1.         Indigenous individuals have the rights to life, physical and mental integrity, liberty and security of person.
2.         Indigenous peoples have the collective right to live in freedom, peace and security as distinct peoples and shall not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence, including forcibly removing children of the group to another group.

 

 

Credits : Wikipedia.org | ohchr.org | culturalsurvival.org


 

In 1945, UNESCO was created in order to respond to the firm belief of nations, forged by two world wars in less than a generation, that political and economic agreements are not enough to build a lasting peace. Peace must be established on the basis of humanity’s moral and intellectual solidarity.

UNESCO strives to build networks among nations that enable this kind of solidarity, by:

 

Director General of The UNESCO Ms Irina BOKOVA
 
 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The History

UNESCO and its mandate for international intellectual co-operation can be traced back to the League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study the question.The International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC. On 18 December 1925, theInternational Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II.

After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom.[11] At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.[12] The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO’s Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.

Credits : Wikipedia.org

 

Director General of The UNESCO Ms Irina BOKOVA
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UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, speaking at the UN General Assembly High-Level Thematic Debate on Culture and Development, June 2013.

 

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UNESCO'S Activities

UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas of Education, Natural Sciences, Social and Human Sciences, Culture, and Communication and Information.

UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.[42]


 

The General Assembly

Established in 1945 under the Charter of the United Nations, the General Assembly occupies a central position as the chief deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations. Comprising all 193 Members of the United Nations, it provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter.

It also plays a significant role in the process of standard-setting and the codification of international law. The Assembly meets in regular session intensively from September to December each year, and thereafter as required.

According to the Charter of the United Nations, the General Assembly may:

PANORAMA OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY HALL
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Mr. Vuk Jeremic President of The General Assembly
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Vuk Jeremić was elected President of the sixty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly on 8 June 2012. At the time of his election, he was serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Repubic of Serbia, an office he held starting on 15 May 2007.

Throughout his five years as Foreign Minister, Mr. Jeremić was actively engaged in the work of the United Nations, representing his country at key sessions of the General Assembly and the Security Council. He led the Serbian delegation at high-level segments of the United Nations Human Rights Council (2008, 2010 and 2011), at the annual General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and at high-level meetings of the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations.

Mr. Jeremić also represented Serbia at the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (Istanbul, 2011), the United Nations High- Level Meeting on Nuclear Security (New York, 2011) and the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (New York, 2010).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr. Vuk Jeremic

   

 


 

Ms. Navanethem Pillay

Pillay was born in 1941 in a poor neighborhood of DurbanNatal ProvinceUnion of South Africa. She is of Tamil descent and her father was a bus driver. She married Gaby Pillay, a lawyer, in January 1965.

Supported by her local Indian community with donations, she graduated from the University of Natal with a BA in 1963 and an LLB in 1965. She later attended Harvard Law School, obtaining an LLM in 1982 and a Doctor of Juridical Science degree in 1988. Pillay is the first South African to obtain a doctorate in law from Harvard Law School.

In 1967, Pillay became the first non-white woman to open her own law practice in Natal Province. She says she had no other alternative: "No law firm would employ me because they said they could not have white employees taking instructions from a coloured person". As a non-white lawyer under the Apartheid regime, she was not allowed to enter a judge's chambers.

During her 28 years as a lawyer in South Africa, she defended anti-Apartheid activists and helped expose the use of torture and poor conditions of political detainees. When her husband was detained under the Apartheid laws, she successfully sued to prevent the police from using unlawful methods of interrogation against him. In 1973, she won the right for political prisoners on Robben Island, including Nelson Mandela, to have access to lawyers. She co-founded the Advice Desk for the Abused and ran a shelter for victims of domestic violence. As a member of the Women’s National Coalition, she contributed to the inclusion in South Africa’s Constitution of an equality clause prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of race, religion and sexual orientation. In 1992, she co-founded the international women's rights group Equality Now.

In 1995, the year after the African National Congress came to power, Mandela nominated Pillay as the first non-white woman to serve on the High Court of South Africa. She noted that "the first time I entered a judge's chambers was when I entered my own."

Her tenure on the High Court was short, however, as she was soon elected by the United Nations General Assembly to serve as a judge at theInternational Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). She served for eight years, including four years as president. She was the only female judge for the first four years of the tribunal. Her tenure on the ICTR is best remembered for her role in the landmark trial of Jean-Paul Akayesu, which established that rape and sexual assault could constitute acts of genocide. Pillay said in an interview, "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong signal that rape is no longer a trophy of war."

In February 2003, she was elected to the first ever panel of judges of the International Criminal Court and assigned to the Appeals Division. She was elected to a six-year term, but resigned in August 2008 in order to take up her position with the UN.

High Commissioner for Human Rights
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Ms. Navanethem Pillay

Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. A South African of Indian Tamil origin, she was the first non-white woman on the High Court of South Africa, and she has also served as a judge of the International Criminal Courtand President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Her four-year term as High Commissioner for Human Rights began on 1 September 2008 and was extended an additional two years in 2012.

In South Africa, as a member of the Women's National Coalition, she contributed to the inclusion of the equality clause in the country’s Constitution that prohibits discrimination on grounds of race, gender, religion and sexual orientation. She co-founded Equality Now, an international women's rights organization, and has been involved with other organizations working on issues relating to children, detainees, victims of torture and of domestic violence, and a range of economic, social and cultural rights.

Ms. Pillay received a BA and a LLB from Natal University South Africa. She also holds a Master of Law and a Doctorate of Juridical Science from Harvard University. She was born in 1941, and has two daughters. .

 

 

 

   

Credits : Wikipedia.org | www.ohchr.org

 

About The OHCHR

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) represents the world's commitment to universal ideals of human dignity. We have a unique mandate from the international community to promote and protect all human rights.


The High Commissioner for Human Rights
 is the principal human rights official of the United Nations.

The High Commissioner heads OHCHR and spearheads the United Nations' human rights efforts. We offer leadership, work objectively, educate and take action to empower individuals and assist States in upholding human rights.

We are a part of the United Nations Secretariat with our headquarters in Geneva.

The Office's priorities are set out in two key strategic documents: the OHCHR Plan of Action and its OHCHR Management Plan 2012-2013.

These priorities include greater country engagement, working closely with our partners at the country and local levels, in order to ensure that international human rights standards are implemented on the ground; a stronger leadership role for the High Commissioner; and closer partnerships with civil society and United Nations agencies

 

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The office was established by the UN General Assembly on 20 December 1993 in the wake of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights.

The office is headed by the High Commissioner for Human Rights, who co-ordinates human rights activities throughout the UN System and supervises the Human Rights Council in GenevaSwitzerland. The current High Commissioner is South African lawyer Navanethem Pillay, whose four-year term began on 1 September 2008 and then was extended an additional two years in 2012.

As of 2008, the agency had a budget of US$120m and 1,000 employees based in Geneva. It is an Ex-Officio member of the Committee of theUnited Nations Development Group.

Mandate

The mandate of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights derives from Articles 1, 13 and 55 of the Charter of the United Nations, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action and General Assembly resolution 48/141 of 20 December 1993, by which the Assembly established the post of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. In connection with the programme for reform of the United Nations (A/51/950, para. 79), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Centre for Human Rights were consolidated into a single Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on 15 September 1997.

Purpose

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:

  1. Promotes universal enjoyment of all human rights by giving practical effect to the will and resolve of the world community as expressed by the United Nations;

  2. Plays the leading role on human rights issues and emphasizes the importance of human rights at the international and national levels;

  3. Promotes international cooperation for human rights;

  4. Stimulates and coordinates action for human rights throughout the United Nations system;

  5. Promotes universal ratification and implementation of international standards;

  6. Assists in the development of new norms;

  7. Supports human rights organs and treaty monitoring bodies;

  8. Responds to serious violations of human rights;

  9. Undertakes preventive human rights action;

  10. Promotes the establishment of national human rights infrastructures;

  11. Undertakes human rights field activities and operations;

  12. Provides education, information advisory services and technical assistance in the field of human rights.

Organization

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights is divided into organizational units, as described below. The Office is headed by a High Commissioner with the rank ofUnder-Secretary-General.

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Under-Secretary-General)[edit source | editbeta]

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights is accountable to the Secretary-General.

For Contacts

OHCHR address: 
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) 
Palais Wilson 
52 rue des Pâquis 
CH-1201 Geneva, Switzerland.

Postal address: 
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) 
Palais des Nations 
CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland

Wilson Palace : Headquarter of The High Commissioner for Human Rights
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The Main Bodies of The United Nations

The General Assembly | The Security Council | The Economic and Social Council | The Trusteeship Council | The International Court of Justice | The Secretariat |

The United Nations (UN; French: Organisation des Nations UniesONU) is an international organization whose stated aims include promoting and facilitating cooperation in international lawinternational securityeconomic developmentsocial progresshuman rightscivil rightscivil libertiespolitical freedomsdemocracy, and the achievement of lasting world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.

At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The UN's most prominent position is that of the office ofSecretary-General which has been held by Ban Ki-moon of South Korea since 2007. NGOs may be granted consultative status with ECOSOCand other agencies to participate in the UN's work.

The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City, with further main offices at GenevaNairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

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MEMBER STATES

In 194S there were 51 Member States. To see the growth : In 1960 : 99 Member States | 1970 : 127 Member States | 1980 : 154 Member States | 1990 : 159 Member States | 2000 : 189 Member States | 2011 : 193 Member States .

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United Nations Secretariat Building | New York City

 

Secretary - General Mr. Ban Ki-moon

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The United Nations in brief & How The United Nations Works

The United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs to the UN: membership totals 193 countries.

When States become Members of the United Nations, they agree to accept the obligations of the UN Charter, an international treaty that sets out basic principles of international relations. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes:

The United Nations is not a world government and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us. At the UN, all the Member States — large and small, rich and poor, with differing political views and social systems — have a voice and a vote in this process.

The United Nations has six main organs. Five of them — the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat — are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

Credits : www.un.org